The Canchim breed is the result of scientific
work, which aimed at obtaining economically, the best quality beef
under Central Brazilian conditions, research continues even today,
making the Canchim breed the most studied in Brazil.
The Canchim bull, serving pasture bred zebu
cows, produce early fast growing products, thereby attaining the
end to which it was developed, being outstanding compared to other
breeds, under the same number of calves, however heavier and of
Compared to European breeds, the Canchim bull produces calves with
the same weight but in large quantity. The early fast growing products,
the result of pasture crossbred zebu cows with Canchim bulls, can
be slaughtered at 18 months old if in feedlots after weaning, up
to 24 months old if in feedlots after grazing and at 30 months if
bred exclusively grazing on the range.
Zebu cattle (Bos Indicus), introduced to Brazil
in the last century, were extensively crossbred with herds of native
cattle. The Indian cattle well known for its ability to survive in
the tropics, adapted quickly to Brazil, and in a short time populated
large areas, considerably improving Brazilian beef cattle breeding.
Despite of its rusticity, zebu
cattle was found inferior to the European breeds in respect to being
prococious and yield of meat. It became clear that the beef cattle
population required genetic improvement.
Simply placing European beef
cattle (Bos Taurus), highly productive in temperate climates, in Central
Brazil, would not produce good results, due to their inability to
adapt to a tropical environment. Besides the climate, other factors
such as the high occurrence of parasites, disease and the very low
nutritional value of the native forage.
Information of the breed
The European breed used in the information of
Canchim cattle was Charolais. According to research at that time,
Charolais cattle was chosen because of its high yield and for being
the only European breed specifically for beef, and to present conditions
to adapt to Central Brazil.
In 1992 the Ministry of Agriculture
imported Charolais cattle to the State of Goias, where they remained
till 1936, when they were transferred to Sao Carlos in the State of
Sao Paulo, today the Canchim Farm of the Government Research Station,
Embrapa. From this herd originated the dams and sires utilized in
the program of crossbreeding.
The main zebu breed which contributed
to the information to the Canchim was the Indubrazil, although Guzera
and Nelore where also used. Preference was given to the Indubrazil
breed, due to the ease of obtaining large herds, and reasonable prices,
which would have been difficult with Gir, Nelore or Guzera.
The alternative crossbreeding
programs initialized in 1940 by Dr. Antonio Teixeira Viana had the
objective of obtaining first, crossbreeds 5/8 Charolais and 3/8 Zebu
and second, 3/8 Charolais x 5/8 Zebu, and evaluate which of the two
schemes was the most indicated.
The total number of Zebu cows
utilized to produce the half-breeds was 368, of which 292 were Indubrazil,
44 Guzera and 32 Nelore.
All the animals produced were
reared exclusively on the range. A control of parasites was done every
15 days and the animals were weighed at birth and monthly. The females
weighed up to 30 months and males up to 40 months.
The data collected during various
years of work, permitted an evaluation of the various degrees of crossbreeding.
The conclusion was that the 5/8 Charolais and 3/8 Zebu was the most
suitable, presenting an excellent frame for meat, precocious, resistance
to heat and parasites, and a uniform coat.
The first crossbreed animals
with the degree of blood 5/8 Charolais and 3/8 Zebu born in 1953.
Thus was born a new type of beef cattle for Central Brazil, with the
name Canchim, derived from the name of a tree very common in the region
where the breed was developed.
It was not until 1971 that the
Brazilian Association of Canchim Cattle Breeders (ABCCAN) was formed,
and on the 11th November 1972 the Herd Book was initiated. On the
18th May 1983 the Ministry of Agriculture, recognized Canchim type
cattle as a Breed.
In the middle of the year 2000 the
standards of the breed were renewed, with the Canchim breed fulfilling
the necessary requirements for modern beef cattle.
The Breed Standard Canchim 2000
consists of defining breed parameters and standards for selecting
male and female Canchim capable of producing Canchim commercial bulls,
able to produce early fast growing commercial cattle on the range
and the focus of these definitions was the concept of PRECOCIOUS,
bred on the to be understood as,